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Barefoot skiing is water skiing behind a motorboat without the use of water skis, commonly referred to as "barefooting". Barefooting requires the skier to travel at higher speeds than conventional water skiing (30-45mph/50-70kmh). The necessary speed required to keep the skier upright varies by the weight of the barefooter and can be approximated by the following formula: (W / 10) + 20, where W is the skier's weight in pounds and the result is in miles per hour.
History of barefooting
Barefoot water skiing originated in Winter Haven, Florida. According to the Water Ski Hall of Fame, and witnesses of the event, 17-year-old A.G. Hancock became the first person ever to barefoot water ski in 1947. That same year, Richard Downing "Dick" Pope Jr., was the first person ever to be photographed barefooting, stepping off his skis on a training boom alongside the boat. In 1950, the first barefoot competition was held in Cypress Gardens, with Pope and Mexican competitor Emilio Zamudio as the only two known barefooters in the world at the time.  Throughout the 1950s, additional barefoot starting techniques were invented including the two-ski jump out, the beach start (invented by Ken Tibado in 1955), and the deep water start (invented by Joe Cash in 1958). The tumble-turn maneuver was 'invented' by accident during a double barefoot routine in 1960 when Terry Vance fell onto his back during a step-off and partner Don Thomson (still on his skis) spun him around forward, enabling Vance to regain a standing posture. In 1961, Randy Rabe became the first backward barefooter by stepping off a trick ski backwards, a maneuver Dick Pope had first tried in 1950 but vowed never to try again after a painful fall. The early 1960s saw Don Thomson appear as the first "superstar" of the sport, developing both back-to-front and front-to-back turnarounds, and performing the first barefoot tandem ride in a show at Cypress Gardens.  During this time barefooting began developing in Australia as well. In April 1963, the first national competition was held in Australia, with 38 competitors . The Australians were the first to develop barefoot jumping, one of the three events in modern barefoot competition, as well as pioneer many new tricks. In November 1978, the first world championships were held in Canberra, Australia, where 54 skiers competed for a total of 10 different countries . Australians Brett Wing and Colleen Wilkinson captured the men's and women's titles. In 1976 Briton Keith Donnelly set the first (officially recognised) World Barefoot Jump record of 13.25 metes.
Barefoot water skiing has a competitive aspect which is very established. In traditional competition, there are three events:
Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
Bayombong is a 1st class municipality in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. It is the capital municipality of Nueva Vizcaya. According to the latest census, it has a population of 54,417 people in 10,693 households.
The terrain is basically mountainous dominated by steep hills to mountainous encompassing an area of 36.44% of its total land area. Level to gently sloping is 32.03%, rolling to hilly is 8.09% while the remaining 23.44% are very steep mountains.
Bayombong is the seat of the Provincial Capitol of Nueva Vizcaya. The name Bayombong emanated from the Gaddang word “Bayongyong” which means confluence of a mighty river. It was said that a certain tribe arrived and tried to invade the place which caused the outbreak of the First Tribal War in the area. The site was renamed “Bayumbung” as a sign of the Gaddangs first victory in fighting for their private domains. It was in 1739 when Spanish Friars baptized the place “Bayumbung” which was later changed into Bayombong. Bayombong was formally founded on June 12, 1739 during the first mass celebration in the area which was officiated by Father Pedro Freire, at a makeshift chapel at the foot of the Bangan Hill.
Bayombong was administered by friars upon its founding. The considered founding fathers of Bayombong were the Gaddangs led by their leaders Ramon Cabauatan, Jacinto Gadingan, Vicente Saquing, Ignacio Abuag, Mariano Danao, Domingo Bayaua and certain Bincatan and Mamuric.
In 1754, the formal organization of the local government started. A Capital del Pueblo was appointed as the Chief Executive.
Fourteen (14) years its founding in 1739, the town of Bayombong was administered by Friars. The major activities of the colonizers were Religion and Education. The year 1574 marked the beginning of the formal organization of the local government of Bayombong. With the appointment of a CAPITAN DEL PUEBLO as the chief executive of the town. In 1789, the title of the chief executive was changed to GOBERNADORCILLO. In 1893, the title was changed to CAPITAN MUNICIPAL. During the government in 1896, the PRESIDENTE LOCAL was chief executive of the town but this was again changed to MAYOR in 1937 as per provision of the commonwealth Constitution.
The following were chief executives of Bayombong: CAPITAN DEL PUEBLO (Appointed) 1754-1765 Cutaran Galbay Tallat Malluduy Abbacan Nareg Maddalig Banayan Bincatan Gumangan Guzman
ALCALDE NATURALES (Elected) 1782-1787
Damiano Danao (First elected Alcalde of Bayombong) Domingo Cabauatan Marcelino Mangansat Vicente Saquing Domingo Bayaus Jacinto Gadingan Franciso Balunsat Vicente Calata
PRESIDENTE MUNICIPAL 3 Years Term
1900-1901 Jose Cutaran (Viva Vice) 1902-1903 Jose Cabauatan (Elected) 1904 Albert Beuecler (An American, appointed) 1905 Jose Cabuatan (Elected) 1906-1907 Albert Beuecler (Elected) 1908-1909 Jose Cabuatan 1910-1911 Wenceslao Valera 1912-1913 Vecente Cutaran 1914-1915 Casimiro Catriz 1916 Casimiro Catriz 1917-1918 Juan Sacdalan (Appointed in place of Catriz who was suspended due to gambling)
PRESIDENTE MUNICIPAL 3 Year Term
1919-1921 Pedro Ambatal 1922-1924 Cristobal Aquino 1925-1927 Victor Bobila 1928-1930 Victor Bobila (1928 the construction of Bayombong Central School) 1931-1933 Leoncio Garingan 1934-1936 Leoncio Garingan
1937-1939 Leoncio Garingan 1940-1941 Faustino Alejandro 1942-1943 Vicente Gauuan, Sr. Victor Bobila (Appointed) Jose Babaran (Appointed) Mariano de Fiesta (Appointed) 1945 Tomas Maddela I (Appointed Pcau) 1946 Dionisio Galicia (Appointed)
Places to visit/ landmarks
Scenic Spots :
The Capitol Park – It is considered as the "Luneta of the North". This 8-hectare park is carpeted with green grass and elegantly landscaped. It has a boating lagoon, fountain and wishing well, picnic huts and sports facilities. It also has painting murals depicting some significant legends, the indigenous tribes and major attractions of the province.
Bayombong Children's Park – located at the heart of the town and is a good playground of children. It is equipped with swings, slides, etc.
St. Dominic Cathedral – It is located at the heart of the town and it boasts of having the best sounding church bells in the country. The structure is made of bricks and rare church antiques.
The People’s Museum and Library – This two-storey historical building, where the provincial government was formerly seated, is now housing the Novo Vizcayano history and heritage.
Bangan Hill - A historic landmark and cultural treasure. It is the site of the annual "Stations of the Cross" staged by the local Catholic church during the Lenten season using live actors depicting the last moments leading to Jesus Christ's crucifixion. Also great for hiking enthusiasts.
Rizal Shrine - located at Barangay Casat, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.
Bansing Falls-Located at Barangay Bansing, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya.
Begusarai is a city and a municipal council in Begusarai district in the state of Bihar, India. Begusarai district is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar and Begusarai town is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district lies on the northern bank of the Ganga river . It is located at latitudes 25.15N & 25.45N and longitudes 85.45E & 86.36E. Begusarai is the birthplace of famous Hindi poet Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh and eminent historian Professor Ram Saran Sharma. Begusarai is the part of historic Mithila region. Begusarai had traditionally been a communist stronghold and was earlier also referred to as the Leningrad of Bihar.
The name of the district apparently comes from "Begum" (queen) and "Sarai" (inn). The Begum of Bhagalpur used to visit "Simaria Ghat" (holy place on the banks of the Ganges) for a month of pilgrimage, which later took to the slang of Begusarai. Begusarai was established in 1870 as a subdivision of Munger District. In 1972, it was given district status after a strong pressure on the government by Late Rai Saheb Bhubneshwari Sahai, a charismatic leader of the local community who was also the first person in the district to be awarded the prestigious title of Rai Saheb under the British Raj.
The District contains Asia's largest oxbow lake, kabar Taal which contains some of rare and endangered birds and is situated near Manjhaul village.
Being part of the Gangetic plains of the Indian subcontinent, the district experiences three climatic seasons – the summer season from March to mid June, the monsoon season from mid June to October and the winter season from November to February. The month of February & March fall in the transitional season from winter to summer described as Spring or “Basant”. Similarly the months of September & October falls in the transitional season from the monsoon season to the winter season and described as “Shishir”.
As per 2011 census Begusarai Municipal Corporation had a total population of 251,136, out of which 133,931 were males and 117,205 were females. It had a sex ratio of 875. The population below 5 years was 37,966. The literacy rate of the 7+ population was 79.35 per cent.
Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'(September 23, 1908– April 24, 1974) was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academician, who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. Dinkar emerged as a rebellious poet with his nationalist poetry in pre-Independence days. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi ("National poet") evoking the spirit of nationalism on account of his inspiring patriotic composition. Dinkar was born in a poor Hindufamily. Dr. Sudhir Kumar, who is the first CSIR, JRF from G.D. College, Begusarai. He is the founder of CDRI Research fellow's Forum, Lucknow. Eminent historian Professor Ram Sharan Sharma was born on 26 November 1919 in Barauni Deorhi, Begusarai, Bihar in a poor family.
Begusarai is well connected to other parts of Bihar and India through railways as well as roads. New Delhi - Guwahati railway line passes through Begusarai. It is a station on the Barauni-Katihar section of East Central Railway. There is a small aerodrome in Ulao, five km from the district headquarters. Barauni Railway Junction holds major importance in east-central Bihar. A number of important trains originate from this station for major cities like Delhi, Guwahati, Amritsar, Varanasi, Lucknow, Mumbai, Chennai etc. Rajendra Setu on the Ganges is connected to Mokama and Hathidah. There are 18 railway stations in this district. Interior parts of the district are well connected to the main roads. The National Highways 28 and 31 link this district to the other parts of the country. Their total length is 95 km. State roads have a total length of 262 km. 95% of the all the villages are linked to the rural and urban road facilities.Transport area is also connected to hotels for customer stay.
All colleges are affiliated to L.N.Mithila University, Darbhanga. Most prominent colleges are Ganesh Dutt College, Cooperative College, Mahila College, A.P.S.M.College Barauni. Some of the renowned schools are, BSS Inter Collegiate High School, BP High School, RTS Viswa Vidyapeeth (Behind G.D. College), St. Paul's School, DAV Barauni, B R DAV (IOC), KV IOC, DAV Itwa Nagar, Cyberschool,Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya,R.K.C.High school Barauni, Baro Middle School which is Establist in 1873, RKH School Chhourahi Bakhadda.
Athletics is a term encompassing the human competitive sports and games requiring physical skill, and the systems of training that prepare athletes for competition performance. Athletic sports or contests, are competitions which are primarily based on human, physical competition, demanding the qualities of stamina, fitness, and skill. Athletic sports form the bulk of popular sporting activities, with other major forms including motorsports, precision sports, and animal sports. Athletic contests, as one of the earliest types of sport, are prehistoric and comprised a significant part of the Ancient Olympic Games, along with equestrian events. The word "athletic" is derived from the Ancient Greek word ????? (athlos) meaning "contest". Athletic sports became organised in the late 19th century with the formation of organisations such as the Amateur Athletic Union in the United States and the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques in France. The Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (later the NCAA) was established in 1906 to oversee athletic sports at college-level in the United States, known as college athletics. Athletics has gained significant importance at educational institutions: talented athletes may gain entry into higher education through athletic scholarships and represent their institution in an athletic conference. Since the Industrial Revolution, people in the developed world have adopted an increasingly sedentary lifestyle and as a result athletics now plays a significant part in providing routine physical exercise. Athletic clubs worldwide offer athletic training facilities for multitudes of sports and games.
The word athletics is derived from the Greek word "athlos" (?????), meaning "contest" or "task." The Ancient Olympic Games were born of war and featured various forms of athletics such as running, jumping, boxing and wrestling competitions. In the modern English language, the term athletics has taken on two distinct meanings. Its meaning in American English connotes human physical sports and their respective systems of training. The other principle meaning of the word comes from British English and variants within the British Commonwealth; this meaning of athletics refers solely to the concept of the sport of athletics (a category of sporting competition which comprises track and field sports and various forms of foot racing), rather than athletic activity in general.
Athletic body type
Gender and genetics play major roles in assessing athletic potential. There are significantly fewer football leagues for women; however, women have been active in martial arts for centuries, and sports like figure skating and tennis tend to favor women in terms of spectator popularity. Basketball, high jump, and volleyball favor taller athletes, while gymnastics and wrestling favor shorter ones. Long distance runners tend to be faster and thinner, while competitive powerlifters and American football players tend to be stockier. Athletic development often begins with athletic parents.
A primary athletic function is the body conditioning required for competition. Most often, trainers utilize proven athletic principles in order to develop athletic qualities; these qualities include coordination, flexibility, precision, power, speed, endurance, balance, awareness efficiency, and timing. While physical strength is prized over most other qualities in Western athletics, it is forbidden in the physical conditioning of T'ai chi ch'uan.
High-level athletics not only treat injuries with medical procedure, but attempt to prevent problems such as trauma and overuse injuries. Sports medicine can also include the use of massage, glucose testing, Rolfing, physical therapy, and performance enhancing drugs like caffeine & anabolic steroids.
Sports nutrition is the study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance. It is concerned with the type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete, and deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Although an important part of many sports training regimens, it is most commonly considered in strength sports (such as weight lifting and bodybuilding) and endurance sports (for example cycling, running, swimming).
Training and coaching
Athletes first learn basic movement patterns such as running, stopping, jumping and throwing. Coaches help athletes refine these movements into sport specific skills. A skill such as high jumping can then be refined into a competitive technique like the Western roll or the Fosbury Flop. An individual’s expression of a technique is often called a style; while various competitive swimming strokes are also called styles. Team sports often develop and practice plays or strategies where players carry out specific tasks to coordinate a team effort of attack or defense. Technical training may also include teaching the rules and restrictions of a sport or game. Elite athletes and teams require high-level coaching. A coach is often associated only with an athlete’s technical development; however, a coach will likely play all the roles of mentor, physical trainer, therapist, medical responder, technical trainer and performance facilitator. Coaches may or may not involve sportsmanship in their program. Coaching typically signifies a quadrennial, ongoing mentorship for athletic development, as opposed to a clinician who might only assist for a short period of time. Not only must coaches be able to teach technical form, but recognize and correct problems with a teams' or an athlete’s technique and conditioning. Recent advancements in video technology can provide accurate biomechanical data to optimize the form, precision, timing, efficiency and power of an athlete’s movements. Critical to a team’s or an athlete’s success is a winning attitude. Inherent in the drive to win is the ability to remain relaxed and focused under the pressure of competition. Modern athletic coaches employ the use of sports psychologists to help athletes organize themselves through visualization, relaxation techniques, self-talk, concentration, etc.
Amateurs and professionals
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 was created to prohibit sex discrimination in education programs that receive (U.S.) federal funding. The original statute made no reference to athletics or athletics programs. From 1972 to 2006, Title IX underwent a series of amendments for gender equity which became high impact on high school and collegiate athletics because it promoted maximum female participation in athletics through equal spending. Professional sports are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism is seen by some as a contradiction of the central ethos of sport, competition performed for its own sake and pure enjoyment, rather than as a means of earning a living.
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2. John Gillette (1987). "Barefooting: Second Edition".
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Barefoot_skiing", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
1. Rizal Shrine
2. Nueva Vizcaya State University
3. PLT College
4. Saint Mary's University
5. Saint Mary's University High School / Science High School
6. Saint Mary's University Kindergarten
7. Saint Mary's University Grade School
8. 24/7 Inn
This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bayombong_Nueva_Vizcaya", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
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6. Sahitya Akademi Award Citation
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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Begusarai ", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
2. Athletics Definition. Merriam Webster. Retrieved on 2011-06-26.
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This article uses material from the Wikipedia article "Athletics", which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.